Access and Use of ICT stats released
By John Churu, Gaborone, Botswana
Statistics Botswana has released the first results of the 2014 Information and Communication Technology Household Survey. The survey according to the numbers body, was the first of its kind that it has conducted. “Its main objective was to measure accessibility and penetration of ICTs in Botswana. Prior to this survey, statistics on ICT access and usage were limited and largely based on estimates from surveys which were not mdeled to assess the impact of ICT in the country hence we found it fit to fill this gap,” said a report seen by biztechafrica from Statistics Botswana.
The 2014 ICT Survey collected information on household access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) was collected from individuals aged 10 years and over while that on household access was collected at household level. The survey covered the whole country. Acordingly, the brief summarises statistics on: Household access to ICTs, individual use of, mobile cellular telephone, computer, internet, print media, radio and television. As well as activities conducted by individuals through the internet including e-government and e-commerce.
According to this 2014 ICT survey, the proportion of households with a radio set in Botswana stood at 59.4 percent in 2014. This was a 2.1 percentage point fall from 61.5 percent recorded in the 2011 Population and “Housing Census. The trend over the years, shows a decrease in household ownership of radio sets,” said the same commentary.
The City of Gaborone, with 18.6 percent, had the highest proportion of households with radio sets. Kweneng East and Central Serowe Districts followed with 12.9 percent and 5.8 percent respectively. Sowa Town and Ngwaketse West District had the lowest proportion of households with radio sets, said Stats Botswana in their report.
Male-headed households dominated in household ownership of radio sets; they constituted 32.1 percent of total households while Female Headed Households owning radio sets made up only 23.7 percent of total households.
Households headed by those aged 35-44 years owned more radio sets than other households. With regard to household ownership of radio sets with respect to the education level of head of household, the 2014 ICT Survey shows that households headed by those with secondary school education owned more radio sets than other households. Households headed by those with non-formal education were the least in terms of radio ownership.
In the category of Household Ownership of a working television set, unlike household ownership of radio sets which has been decreasing over the years, household ownership of television sets has instead increased in Botswana. According to the survey, 60.3 percent of all households had working television sets. Comparing this with data from the 2011 Population and Housing Census, the proportion of households with television sets increased in 2014 by 6.2 percentage points from the 54.1 percent registered in 2011.
As was the case with radio ownership, the city of Gaborone dominated in household ownership of television sets. It had 20.8 percent of all households with television sets. Kweneng East and the city of Francistown were next with 15.7 percent and 6.3 percent respectively.
Again, Male-headed households with television sets constituted 32.3 percent of all households in Botswana while female headed households with television sets made up 28.0 percent of all households.
Households headed by those within the age groups 35-44 years and 25-34 years dominated in television ownership. The survey further revealed that households headed by those with tertiary education owned more television sets than other households headed by heads with other categories of education.
Households with fixed telephones has been reducing over the years while households with mobile cellular telephones has instead been increasing. This is revealed by data from the 2014 ICT survey and other censuses/surveys which were conducted before it.
The proportion of households with a fixed telephone has reduced from 33.5 percent recorded in 2001 to 9.5 percent in 2014. On the other hand, the proportion of households with mobile cellular telephones has increased, it rose from 40.5 percent recorded in 2003 to 94.1 percent in 2014.
Household Access to the Internet
According to the 2014 ICT Survey, 40.6 percent of households had access to internet. The majority of households with access to internet used mobile internet, they constituted 94.3 percent of all households with access to internet. Fixed wireless was the next most prevalent internet connection used by most households with 9.8 percent, followed by asymmetric digital subscriber line with 7.3 percent.
Households headed by those within the age groups 25-34 years and 35-44 years dominated in household access to internet. Most households with access to internet were headed by those with tertiary and secondary school education.
The City of Gaborone had the highest proportion of households with access to the internet (24.1 percent). Kweneng East District and Ngwaketse followed with 11.4 percent and 7.1 percent respectively.
As for Household Access to a Computer it was revealed that of all households in Botswana, the 2014 ICT survey showed that 20.6 percent of them owned a laptop while 10.9 percent owned a desktop computer. Gaborone, Kweneng East, South East and Francistown regions had most households with computers. Most of the households headed by those aged 25-54 years had computers while those households headed by those with tertiary education dominated in household computer ownership.
In 2014, 85.3 percent of the population 10 years and over in Botswana used a mobile cellular telephone. Of these individuals, 44.2 percent were males while 55.8 percent were females. The majority of mobile cellular telephone users spend most of their time chatting, sending and receiving short messages as well as playing music and videos.
Gaborone, with 17.5 percent of the total, had the largest proportion of mobile cellular telephone users in 2014. Kweneng East and Ngwaketse Districts followed with 14.6 percent and 6.3 percent respectively.
“When analyzing mobile cellular telephone users by their highest education level attained, the 2014 ICT survey shows that 20.4 percent of them had completed Primary or Lower education, while 30.7 percent and 16.6 percent of them had completed Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary education. Those with Tertiary education constituted 23.9 percent of mobile cellular telephone users.
With regards to labor force status, 50.7 percent of mobile cellular telephone users were either employees or self-employed while 49.3 percent was constituted by those who did not work. Of all mobile cellular telephone users who worked, 41.0 percent of them were employees who are paid in cash, 0.3 percent were employees paid in kind, 7.1 percent were self-employed with no employees and 2.4 percent were self-employed with employees.”
When categorizing mobile cellular telephone users by their occupations, the survey showed that 12.2 percent of users were Services and Sales Workers, 11.6 percent were of Elementary occupations, 5.8 percent were Craft and Related Trades Workers, 5.0 percent were Professionals, 4.2 percent were Plant and Machine Operators, 4.0 percent were Technicians and Associated Professionals, 3.7 percent were Managers.
On the Individual Computer use, the proportion of individuals who used a computer in 2014 stood at 41.4 percent of all individuals. Females, as was the case in the use of mobile cellular telephones, dominated in the use of computers; females constituted 53.2 percent of total users while males constituted 46.8 percent.
The 2014 ICT Survey further reveals that the City of Gaborone had the highest proportion of computer users, it accounted for 27.5 percent of the total. Kweneng East District and the City of Francistown followed with 15.0 percent and 5.4 percent respectively. Ngwaketse West District and Sowa Town on the other hand, had the least proportion of computer users. Ngwaketse West District had 0.3 percent while Sowa Town had 0.2 percent.
“Computer users with formal education accounted for 99.6 percent of the total. Among this group, 44.3 percent had Tertiary education while 21.5 percent had Upper Secondary education. Those with Primary or lower education and Lower Secondary education made up 8.9 percent and 24.6 percent of the total,” said the government statistics arm.
Amongst computer users, the survey shows that 42.4 percent were employees who were paid in cash followed by the Self-employed with no employees at 3.3 percent and the Self-employed with employees at 2.8 percent. Furthermore, the survey shows that with regard to occupations, Services and Sales workers were the largest users of computers constituting 10.2 percent of the total. Professionals and Technicians and Associated Professionals were next with 10.0 percent and 6.8 percent respectively.
On the individual internet use, the proportion of individuals aged 10 years and over who used the internet from any location in 2014 was 36.7 percent. Of these individuals, 51.2 percent were females and 48.8 percent were males. Most of internet users, 55.3 percent, used it every day or almost every day; and most of them (68.3 percent) used it at home.
The most common device used to access the internet was a mobile cellular telephone. Most internet users (78.4 percent) used it to participate in social networks. Those who used the internet to read or download online newspapers, magazines or electronic books amounted to 56.6 percent of internet users. Internet banking and getting information from government departments’ websites were performed by 8.6 percent and 21.1 percent respectively of internet users.
Individuals with tertiary education were the most internet users, they accounted for 48.3 percent of all internet users with formal education. As compared to other internet users with formal education in respect to internet activities, tertiary educated internet users were the most engaged in internet banking, looking for jobs, contributing to professional networks, purchasing or ordering goods and services, telephoning through the internet, sending and receiving emails, interacting with government organizations and looking/researching for information.
Employed and self-employed individuals formed the majority of all internet users, with employees paid in cash being the most internet consumers at 46.9 percent.